Relating to female education in 19th century in Puerto Rico, a famous example of equal opportunity in education between sexes was the establishment of a school for girls by Ms. Celestina Cordero. Also in the latter half of 19th century, the Committee of Ladies of Honor of the Economical Society of Amigo de Puerto Rico or the Association of Ladies for the Instruction of Women , these organizations endeavored to improve female education. But it was only after the 20th century that the greater mass of women had come to be able to have an education. After 1900, the US authority started the policy that would spread public education and attempted to substantially improve the education system. With this policy, many children received education and the opportunity of getting education for women increased drastically. The number of women who could receive education was few in the 19th century but it peaked sharply in the 20th century.
But the man still exercised their control over the woman by confirming his, as stated by Ramirez, “persistence of male chauvinism, authoritarianism, and violence against puertorican girl women” . Inroads of contemporary American culture have been made into much of island life, but Puerto Ricans are fiercely proud of their Spanish heritage.
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In the early 1900s, women all across Puerto Rico were unionizing in earnest. By 1904, eight women’s unions had organized to lead strikes and protests demanding equal wages and worker protections. Capetillo and other women called for women’s suffrage to be a central political platform at a worker’s organizing meeting in 1908.
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At the end of the nineteenth century, government and ecclesiastical authorities in Puerto Rico proposed education as a way to instil values of modesty and motherhood, which they thought were lacking because of the great number of consensual marriages. As of 2013, approximately 5 million Puerto Ricans reside in the mainland U.S. and these 16 non-binary and women writers are adding new narratives to the history of Puerto Rican writing.
That same year, labor activists convinced one lawmaker to present the first bill calling for women’s civil rights to the Puerto Rican legislature, but it was soundly rejected. Within the next decade or so, Puerto Rican politicians would reject more than a dozen bills calling for women’s right to vote.
The suffragists and women laborers were solidly supporting the right to vote for women movement. The suffrage movement had been flourishing with the increase of women laborers, the emergence of women activists in the labor movement, the expansion of women intellectuals and the activities of suffragists. In 1898 the Regional Federation of Workers , first organization with the character of a labor union, was founded. The next year they changed its name to Liberty Federation of Workers and restarted. This organization tried to organize and educate female workers actively to prevent the wage level of all workers from falling because of the low wages of female workers. The union made woman suffrage one of its demands as early as its fifth conference in 1908. This was first important claim of right to vote for women in Puerto Rico.
Considering these statistics we can say that women don’t give full play to their ability in economic activity. As well, the earnings difference between men and women is still high, though it is improving. The ratio of average earnings was 100 for men to 42.8 for women in 1960, 100 to 60.4 in 1970, and 100 to 65 in 1980. Talking about women in general, it was common that a woman supported her family. The divorce rate was higher than in the US and divorce was looked at as a very common phenomenon so the person who didn’t divorce seemed rare. I agreed with it recognizing that Puerto Rican society would not be able to exist without women who play an active part in the society. Next I’ll analyze the social-economic statistics of Puerto Rican women to grasp the women’s situation.
The rate of use of contraceptive methods by married women of childbearing age, is 70% ( ) and the same as Argentina and Cuba. This Puerto Rican rate is almost same as the developed countries’ ones. Besides it’s worthy of attention that abortion is legal in Puerto Rico.